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Congress unanimously invited the United Nations to set up headquarters in the United States, and the organization chose New York City as its permanent home.

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The United Nations is open to all "peaceloving" states, a requirement construed liberally over the years. The Trusteeship Council, which was established to encourage governments to prepare trust territories for self-government or independence, has largely completed its original task of supervising 11 non-self-governing territories.

In the Security Council terminated the Trusteeship Agreement of Belau, a trust territory in the western Pacific that had been administered by the United States. As all other trust territories had previously obtained independence or self-government, the Trustee-ship Council amended its rules and as of meets only as situations requiring action arise. The main deliberative body of the United Nations, the General Assembly, somewhat resembles a parliament; each nation has one vote.

The General Assembly has no power to compel any action by a member state, however. It only has the right to discuss and make recommendations on matters within the scope of the UN Charter. Headed by a president elected at each session, the assembly ordinarily meets from mid-September to mid-December; other sessions are held as necessary. Ordinary matters require only a majority vote, but important matters, such as recommendations on peace and security, election of members to the Security Council or the Economic and Social Council, or admission of member states, require a two-thirds majority.

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The assembly also approves the UN budget including peacekeeping operations , sets policies, determines programs for the UN Secretariat, and, in conjunction with the Security Council's recommendation, appoints the UN secretary-general, the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. The Security Council has the primary responsibility for maintaining peace and security.

A representative of each member of the Security Council must always be present at UN headquarters so that the council can convene any time peace is threatened. Unlike the other UN organs, member states are obligated under the charter to carry out economic and diplomatic decisions by the council. All decisions require nine votes, but on all questions except procedural matters, the permanent members must vote unanimously or abstain. This Veto power has been exercised many times and can seriously undermine the Security Council's ability to take bold steps in tenuous situations.

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The Security Council usually seeks peaceful means such as mediation or settlement when international peace is threatened. Peacekeepers may be sent to prevent the outbreak of a conflict, or the council may issue a cease-fire directive once fighting has begun. The Security Council may impose economic sanctions and order collective military action.

The United Nations was involved in 56 peacekeeping operations between and ; military personnel are drawn from member states; more than , persons have served. Almost 1, peacekeepers have lost their lives. In , 14 UN operations deployed approximately 37, personnel, including troops, civilian police, and military observers, from 89 countries. The reality of UN peacekeeping efforts often falls short of the organization's ideals.

For example, in the early s UN troops attempted to restore order and provide humanitarian relief during the civil war in Somalia. Warring Somali factions greatly impeded the troops' efforts, however, and in the UN forces withdrew without succeeding in their mission. In addition, UN members sometimes pledge support for a mission but fail to deliver tangible evidence of that support.

In the secretary-general determined that 35, troops would be needed to deter attacks on so-called safe areas in Bosnia and Herzegovina.


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Member states authorized fewer than 8, troops and took a year to provide them. Nevertheless, the United Nations has had some successes: its operations in Kashmir, Cyprus, Lebanon, Suez, Cambodia, and Mozambique have been highly praised. The Economic and Social Council, which has 54 members, coordinates the economic and social work of the United Nations and its specialized agencies and institutions. Among other tasks, the council recommends and directs activities to promote economic growth in developing countries, promotes the observance of human rights, and attempts to foster cooperation in creating housing, controlling population growth, and preventing crime.

They are called co-facilitators. The Group of 77 at the United Nations is a coalition of emerging economies and developing countries, founded in by 77 countries to promote the collective economic interests of its members and to boost their capacity for negotiations at the United Nations. The Group has since expanded and now includes member States. The term G is sometimes also used to by opposition to the G Rather than a physical area, the concept represents a symbolic space in which humanitarian agencies can operate freely and in relative security, regardless of any political, military and economic agendas.

It is therefore a space for negotiations and compromises between humanitarian agencies and the parties in power states, local government, non-state forces.


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  6. It enables an independent needs assessment, humanitarian access to vulnerable populations and the freedom to verify the distribution of aid. Lounge located next to the General Assembly, favoured by diplomats thanks to its quiet and cozy atmosphere, often used for private discussions.

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    The lounge was named after two Balinese sculptures offered as a gift by the government of Indonesia and representing peace and prosperity. Close to 3 scientists and economists contribute to the IPCC. Numerous events are organized concurrently with the ministerial week. The Non-Aligned Movement was created in It represented a group of countries which claimed to be neither with nor against any major power bloc.

    The movement continued after the Cold War, and now has member States. As a group, these countries negotiate issues related to disarmament. At the General Assembly, a no-action motion interrupts the debates between member States on a draft resolution. The motion is put to a vote and requires a majority vote.

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    Representatives from member countries can express themselves in one of these six languages; their speeches are then translated into five other languages. It is possible to communicate in a language other than these six; however, this can be done only when an interpreter is provided, who then interprets in one of the six official languages and becomes the intermediary for the other five.

    Official documents must be available in the six official languages. The Heads of State and Government speak before the ministers, who speak before the permanent representatives. After that the first-come, first-served rule is applied: each State asks to be registered on the list of speakers. Intergovernmental subsidiary advisory body of the Security Council and the General Assembly established in It aims to institutionalize and systematize the links between peacekeeping operations, post-conflict operations and donors international network of support and mobilization.

    Learn more on peacebuilding. This term refers to the delegation which is the author of the first draft of a resolution. For example, France has traditionally been a pen holder for Security Council resolutions related to. Permanent observers are entities which do not have the status of a member of the United Nations and no voting rights.

    The permanent representative is the head of a permanent mission. The deputy permanent representative DPR is the number 2 of the mission. The presidency rotates annually between the five regional groups. On a rotational basis and in alphabetical order in English of the names of member States, each State holds the presidency of the Security Council for one month. It is adopted by consensus at a formal meeting of the Security Council and read by the President of the Security Council on behalf of the Council.

    At the Security Council , when a State wishes to put a draft resolution in blue, this means that it wishes to present it for a vote. The draft resolution is then printed in blue ink and officially distributed by the Secretariat to the Security Council members. In general, a draft resolution is put in blue 24 hours before the vote.

    It is in fact an important meeting place which can be noisy, in contrast with its name. It is dedicated to world peace for people of all faiths and religions. These groups allow for an equitable rotation and division of the positions within the UN i. The regional groups do not however reflect geopolitical reality.


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    The rules of procedure of many conferences provide that a delegation which so requests must be given an opportunity to make a brief statement in reply to a statement made by another delegation if it believes that its own position has been misunderstood or misrepresented. Also used in practice to respond to remarks which are considered injurious. The right of veto gives each of the five permanent members of the Security Council China, the United States, France, the United Kingdom, and Russia the option of opposing a resolution.

    Regardless of the number of votes in favor, one veto is enough to ensure that a draft resolution is not adopted. This publication lists the principal terms used in combined transport or related to it. All the definitions referring specifically to the geographical framework of Europe may be applied to other regions of the world. The purpose of this glossary is to determine the meaning of the terms in current use, and to make them more easily understandable to the increasing number of people who use them, politicians, technical personnel or operators of the various modes of transport concerned.