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WikiZero - Military Assistance Advisory Group
This volume presents a number of case studies of military advisors and missions in order to provide clear historical examples of the evolution, functioning and motives of foreign military advising in the modern era. Containing essays by US contributors covering a wide range of countries and spanning nearly years of history, the case studies show the evolution of foreign military advising from ill-organized mercenary units, to professional, government-sponsored teams driven by a desire to cultivate political and economic influence, to Cold War tools for pursuing ideological aims, nation building, and modernization, to post-Cold War elements of alliance integration.
Finally, the book highlights the increasing present-day role of private corporations, some of which provide complete military forces, thereby bringing the evolution of foreign military advising full circle. This book will be of interest to students of military history, civil-military relations, peacekeeping, security studies and political science in general. Passar bra ihop. Clausewitz Donald Stoker. The first step towards realizing this objective was the creation of a military modeled along European lines.
European officers in search of employment following the conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars served as the instructors for the new Egyptian army.
ISBN 13: 9780415770156
Among them was the commander of the French military mission, Pierre Boyer, who earlier in his career had been an aide to Napoleon in Egypt. Indeed, Greece was where the post-Napoleonic careers of hundreds of soldiers and political figures from throughout Europe collided. Consequently, the European officers in the Egyptian army faced former comrades and enemies from the Napoleonic Wars on the rugged battlefields of Greece. Although a province of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans rarely possessed any authority in Egypt, particularly following the withdrawal of the French in In the resulting struggle for power between the remaining Mameluk leaders and several other groups, an unlikely victor emerged to govern Egypt.
Mehmet managed to reach the safety of the Ottoman fleet while 4, drowned and 2, more lay dead on the beaches on the outskirts of Alexandria. Immediately upon securing his position, Mehmet implemented a series of key agricultural and industrial reforms that enabled the organization of a new professional military modeled along European lines.
The result of the military reforms was the al-Nizam al-Jedid or New Organization of the armed forces. The military was bolstered by the arrival of dozens of European officers from mainly France, Italy, and Spain that served as instructors. Naval forces were also modernized and several ships of the Egyptian fleet were constructed in England. Stalemate in the Greek War of Independence prompted Sultan Mahmud II to recognize the military power of Egypt as well as the potential threat posed by his vassal in Cairo.
The conclusion of the Napoleonic Wars offered Mehmet the opportunity to acquire the necessary resources to develop the Egyptian military. He was wounded in several battles including Leipzig in and was a recipient of the Legion of Honor. Dissatisfied with the Bourbon government and with little prospects in France, he traveled to Egypt and presented himself as a French colonel to Mehmet. This hardened soldier embodied the type of character that Mehmet sought to train the new conscripts for the army.
The officers are French and Italian. Regardless of the exact details of his military career, upon his arrival in Egypt, Mari was commissioned a captain of the Egyptian army with the task of drilling conscripts. Egyptian peasants had never been subjected to military training as troops serving in Egypt under Ottoman rule were largely Mameluks and Albanians. Conscription, though successful in essentially building the Egyptian army, was resented and fiercely resisted by the peasants. As Ibrahim Pasha himself later noted, the anger expressed by the peasants concerning conscription was understandable, as a conscript was bound to the army with no specified time frame for discharge.
This was the case in Lower Egypt in the spring of , where the revolt caused Mehmet to personally suppress the disgruntled peasants with his personal guards and several batteries of artillery. A revolt the following year in Upper Egypt mobilized 30, people against their ruler and his unpopular policies.
Indeed, these Egyptian regulars impressed French and British observers alike. Bourbon France in the s was eager to reassert itself as a European power in the aftermath of the fall of the First Empire and the Allied occupation of the country. After assisting in the suppression of the revolt in Spain against King Ferdinand VII, the French began to look eastward and the eastern Mediterranean in particular for a potential ally in the region. Egypt, in the eyes of many French officials was the ideal place to restore French prestige in an area quickly gaining prominence in European affairs.
Mehmet appeared to be pro-French and his reforms echoed some of those implemented by Napoleon. Drovetti was an Italian that had served Napoleon since the French invasion of his native Piedmont in From the onset of his tenure as French consul, Drovetti was convinced Mehmet Ali was destined to rule Egypt and thus stressed the necessity of French interaction with the new Egyptian Wali. Drovetti himself became a close advisor to Mehmet and was instrumental in defending Egypt from the British invasion of Over the years, Drovetti maintained ties with both Mehmet and the French government, even after the fall of Napoleonic France.
This mission initially achieved some success, as officers contributed to training recruits in military schools and also served in field units. By , the Egyptian army units sent to Greece had between five and six European instructors attached to each regiment.
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This was the first sign of tension though several other factors contributed to the sudden end of the Boyer mission. The military mission was plagued by this conflict between Boyer and Mehmet, petty disputes between the various European officers in the Egyptian service, as well as French public opinion. Boyer and other French officers frequently clashed with Italian and Spanish adventurers in search of advancement and wealth in Egypt. French public opinion by , like much of Europe, was firmly in favor of Greek independence.
Consequently, many European officers in the Egyptian service, including General Boyer simply refused to travel to Greece or deserted once it became clear that Europe was strongly in favor of the Greeks.
The Greek revolt, which began in early , was immediately championed by the renowned British poet, Lord Byron. Early Greek successes including the capture of the capital of the Peloponnese, Tripoli in October infuriated Sultan Mahmud II and prompted his reconsideration of the Ottoman war effort.
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The Sultan in Constantinople recognized the potential of the Egyptian army and was impressed with its quality and durability during the campaigns in Arabia and Sudan fought on his behalf. Such success though, was viewed with a combination of suspicion and awe in Constantinople. However, the shortcomings of the Ottoman army in Greece necessitated a successful invasion of the Peloponnese by the Egyptians, as at least at the moment, Mehmet was still a loyal vassal.
Unfortunately for the Sultan, Mehmet was well aware that the Ottoman war effort in Greece depended on Egyptian intervention.
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Mehmet himself did not consider the Greek rebels as enemies; in fact they were assisting in his ultimate objective of weakening the Ottoman Empire and securing additional territory. Thus, with no pressing quarrels with the Greeks himself, Mehmet sought considerable territorial compensation in return for assisting the Ottomans. The year presented an opportunity for the Sultan to bring about a swift conclusion to the rebellion as the Greek rebels were embroiled in a civil war and Mehmet had been convinced to commit his al-Nizam al-Jedid in return for obtaining the Peloponnese for his son Ibrahim Pasha as well as Crete for himself.
The commander of the al-Nizam al-Jedid was Ibrahim Pasha, who like his father was quickly attracting attention in Europe. Ibrahim was an efficient commander with remarkable leadership ability compared to his Ottoman counterparts and fellow Egyptian officers. Although a harsh disciplinarian, Ibrahim nonetheless was adored by his men for exposing himself to the same hardships and dangers as the peasant conscripts.
Indeed, many philhellenes were former comrades of those European officers in the Egyptian service. The campaign began in February , when Ibrahim initiated a series of landings in which a force of 10, troops, 1, cavalry, and a number of artillery seized Methoni Modon in the southwestern Peloponnese unopposed.